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الموضوع: عـــنــــدك قـــطــعــة ... مـــقـــال .. تبغى ترجمتها؟ come on

  1. #51
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    now every thing looks so different
    even lost my way
    help me get through this darkest place
    i can not carry on
    won't you take hold of my hand
    help me right my tears and resist it off
    give you light and lead me on
    why do i always end up this way ?
    my tears may roll down but it is too
    late me now
    tell me how this can be so true
    isn't this just a dream why won't
    you make me up?
    though you may be tar, let my prayers be
    never let me go

  2. #52
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    انا عندي سؤال للترجمة كيف نقول للمتعافي من مرض "سلامتك" بالانجلش، وكيف نقول" اتفضل للطعام"
    ":

  3. #53
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    However many details I provide of my patients' success, you are
    right to be skeptical. Thousands of patients with successful outcomes
    does not necessarily translate into your individual success . After all,you might point out, weren't these patients motivated by severe illness
    or the fear of death? Actually, many were relatively healthy
    people who came to me for routine medical care. They found a hidden
    benefit, and just decided to "eat to live" longer and healthier and
    lose the extra weight they did not need to carry, even if it was only
    ten to twenty pounds. When faced with the information in this book,
    they simply changed



    بليز ابي ترجمه هالمقطع

  4. #54
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    السلام عليكم ..

    عندي اسايمنت ترجمة لهالنص , اللله يسسعد ويوفق اللي يترجمه بشكل صحيح ..

    وقال الحشاش، يعد العثور على قبر الطفلة اكتشافا أثريا مهما، حيث وجدت مجموعة من اللقى والمصوغات المهمة وهي معروضة في الرياض، متوقعا أن يكون الموقع كبيرا للغاية، كما أن هناك قبورا كثيرة جدا في الموقع تحتاج إلى تنقيب وحفر واستخراج الحضارات القديمة من تلك المواقع. وأضاف الحشاش، إن ثاج مدينة أثرية ذكرها المؤرخون والرحالة تقع في وادي المياه في الصمان، وهي موقع حضاري يشرف على الدرب التجاري المسمى بدرب الكنهري، كما توجد بها مدينة متكاملة الأسوار ترجع إلى أكثر من ألفي عام، وتنتشر بها الكسر الفخارية والمدافن التلالية المختلفة الأنماط، وبين الحشاش أن شواهد القبور تنتشر في ثاج والتي كتبت بالخط المسند إضافة إلى وجود الآبار والعيون القديمة جدا، وقال: "لدينا مواقع عديدة في المنطقة الشرقية تحتوي على قبور مهمة جدا تحمل في طياتها التاريخ والآثار، وكذلك الكنوز التاريخية التي لا تقدر بثمن".
    وبين أنه إضافة إلى القبور الموجودة في قاعدة الظهران الجوية هناك آثار أخرى في مواقع متعددة، وهي امتداد لحضارة دلمون الشهيرة التي تسيدت قبل نحو أربعة آلاف سنة في المنطقة، وهناك توجهات كبيرة خاصة مع انضمام الآثار والمتاحف إلى الهيئة العامة للسياحة والآثار، وزيارات لهذه المواقع وبشكل دوري من قبل مجموعة من المتخصصين. واستبعد الحشاش، أن تتعرض المواقع للسرقة خاصة مع وجود حراس من نفس القرية رغم أن التحصين بالسياج لا يعد كافيا في حفظها، في وجود أجهزة متطورة تكشف عن المعادن والنفائس.
    وقد ذكر مختصون في الآثار، أن بقاء بعض الآثار تحت الأرض وطمرها بالرمال في المواقع جعلها غائبة عن أعين لصوص الآثار المحترفين معتقدين، أن وقوع قبور ثاج بعيدة عن العمران والمناطق المهمة في منأى عن السرقة والبحث والتنقيب والتخريب، وشددوا على ضرورة إيجاد حل للسكان الأصليين وإبعادهم عن مثل هذه المواقع فنظرا لقيمتها التاريخية أيضا هناك خطورة الانهيارات في المواقع المطمورة في الرمال. ويتحدث بعض السكان هناك عن بحثهم عن الأسطورة التي تقول عن بناء مدينة كاملة من الذهب والفضة، إذ يعتقدون أن هناك مدينة قديمة رصت لبنات الذهب والفضة على شكل أسوار ومبان، فيما يقول بعض السكان "امتعضنا كثيرا لدى حفر أحد القبور من قبل الآثار، إلا أن وجود الكنوز والذهب مع الجثة جعلنا غير مصدقين لمثل هذه الأشياء خصوصا وأنها تكثر في الأساطير، ولم نعد نسمع عنها رغم أننا نعرف أن موقع ثاج يحتوي على كنوز، وتخوف البعض منهم بقوله "أصبحنا نشك في كل قادم إلى الموقع أنه يريد السطو على الكنوز والآثار خاصة، وأن الموجود سياج فقط".

  5. #55
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    بارك الله فيك

  6. #56
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    اشكرك ......................

  7. #57
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  8. #58
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    عصر صدر الإسلام.
    هو مصطلح يستخدم للدلاله على السنوات الأولى للإسلام ويشمل تلك الفتره الممتده من بعثة النبي الى اخر ايام الخلفاء الراشدين، واللتي انتهت في حدود نهاية العقد الرابع الهجري عام 40هـ

    آتمنى اعيش في عصر صدر الإسلام لأنه العصر الذي بدأ منه الإسلام وانتشر فيه ، كانت البدع غير ظاهره، وقضي ع الجاهليه، نزل فيه القرآن ، وحفظوه الصحابه.
    جاهدوا في سبيل الله ولازموا الرسول طوال حياته، واذا صعب ع احدهم امرا ذهب الى الرسول.
    كان الصحابه متمسكين بالإسلام وفاهمين حقيقته.
    كنت اتمنى العيش مع رسول الله ولو ليوم واحد فهو شفيعنا وحبيبنا.

    كان الصحابه يتلقون العلم من الرسول مباشره. وكنت اتمنى هذا.
    وكانو يفدونه بأرواحهم واهلهم ومالهم.
    كانو يجاهدون في سبيل الله ويتمنون الموت فيه.

    اتمنى العيش في عصر صدر الإسلام لأنعم بكل هذه المنح.

  9. #59
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    السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاتة

    فضلا وليس أمرا هل لي بالحصول على ترجمة التالي ::


    مامعنى كلمة . يضم .

    مثال .. ضمني في عيونك .

    فلتضمني عيونك


    كلمات : الحنين , الشوق .



    مازال الحنين يسكنني مذ سنين .


    آه من الشوق الذي أصبح كالطوق يحاصر جميع جهاتي ..


    كلمة آه هي الكلمة الوحيدة التي لها نفس النطق في كل لغات العالم فما مفردتها بالانجليزية ؟

    وهي يأن . الأنين ..



    قوافل الشكر تحط رحالها عند سموكم الكريم .

  10. #60
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  11. #61
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    عندي مجموعة من الاسئلة في امتحان ارجو التصحيح هده الاسئلة

    6- We’ve just got engaged!
    Happy anniversary happy birthday congratulations cheers
    7- Do you mind if I open the window?
    No,go ahead yes, go ahead it’s lovely I agree

    8- How do you do .
    I’m a teacher I’m fine,thanks how do you do I like reading
    9- What are your host family like
    They like going out
    They’re really nice
    They like chocolate
    They like cats

    10- We paid 80 for the tickets and the show was really bad
    What a waste of money
    What a throw away of money
    What a spend of money
    What a loss of money


    11- I’ve been in England Since the last 3 weeks .
    Since with for at

    12- When I was a child I used to get up at 7 am every day to go to school .
    Will used to use to used

    13- I can’t come out tonight I don’t have enough money .

    Haven’t have few not have don’t have enough

    14- If I am richer I will buy a big house by the sea .
    Am will be would were would is will

    15- I’ve Already heard the news that you’re pregnant! Congratulations! When’s the baby due?
    Already just since haven’t

    16- I was having breakfast when the phone rang it was an old school friend !
    Am having had was having were having
    17- The Clifton suspension bridge in Bristol Builded by Isambard Kindom Brunnel.
    Builded was built built was building

    18- As soon as I got the important email, I replied. I didn’t wait at all .
    While a long time after as soon as before

    19- how long Have you been working for this company ? 5 years ?
    How many how time how long how

    20- By the time I had finished my homework, it was midnight !
    Finish had finished was finishing do

    21- I Look forward To meeting you next week at the interview .
    Look forward see forward look towards look ahead

    22- I’m very keen on cycling .
    On at by with


    23- I often lend money to my friends.
    Borrow take lend have

    24- There were lots of people on the beach it was so Crowded I couldn’t move!
    Crowded currency quiet commeny

    25- Is the exchange rate good at the moment ? I need to change some money for my holiday.
    Change currency exchange money



    Find the wrong word in the sentence

    26- I have been waiting for to you since 4 pm where have you been
    For to have been

    27- He looks just as like his father
    Just as his like
    28- I have two thousand of pounds to spend on my next holiday
    To on of my


    29- If I will go to tom’s party , I will take all my friends .
    To will (1st) will (2nd ) my


    30- You should to phone your mother. you haven’t called her for ages!
    Should for haven’t to

  12. #62
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    ابغ ترجمة هذا النص
    ايها المباركون فنستأنف معكم دروسنا في هذا المسجد المبارك حول ايات القران العظيم ولقاء هذا اليوم يحمل عنوانه الانبياء وقد ذكر الانبياء في القران كثيرا، الا انني ساحاول معكم في تفسير موضوعي ان نلم شعث الموضوع مااستطعنا الى ذالك سبيلا
    ان اول مادل عليه القران هو ان النبوه منزله تعطى ولا تكتسب ، تعطى ولا تكتسب
    قال الله جل وعلا:(وقالو لولا نزل هذا القران على رجل من القريتين عظيم اهم يقسمون رحمة ربك)
    قال العلماء: الرحمة هنا بمعنى النبوه والله جل وعلا قال و قوله الحق الله اعلم حيث يجعل رساله فما من نبي بعثه الله سأل الله جل وعلا من قبل مقام النبوه، انما الله جل وعلا يصطفيه ، يجتبيه، يمتن عليه ، فيعطيه مقام النبوه هذا اولا.
    آخر تعديل بواسطة ميس القحطاني ، 06-03-2015 الساعة 09:16 PM

  13. #63
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    موضوع جميل

  14. #64
    انجليزي جديد
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    who ever believes in Allah and the day of judgement say good or be silent.

  15. #65
    انجليزي فعال
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    كل الشكر لهذه البادرة الطيبة منكم

    أرجو ترجمة هذه الكلمات في أسرع وقت ممكن
    فينا خير
    مدرستي ....مسئوليتي

  16. #66
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    شكرا جزيلا لك

  17. #67
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    السلام عليكم ممكن مساعدة ضرررررررررووورية ابغى ترجمة conversation مييقا قول 5 الوحدة الرابعه اللي عن الالعاب ارجوووووكم بسرعة

  18. #68
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    السلام عليكم ابغى ترجمة قطع الريدينق منهج ميقا قول الوحدة الرابعة والثالثة the formula of behind الثانية a brief of overview of the history الاولى the world of plastic
    ارجوكم ردوا علي احتاجها عندي درس

  19. #69
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    لقطة المتحيرة في كثير من المرّات كانت القطة لولي تنظر إلى المرآة، لم يكن يعجبها شيء كانت تتذمر دائماً من شكلها الذي لا يعجبها، وكانت دائمة المراقبة للحيوانات الأخرى، فمرّة تحلم أن تطير مثل الطائر، ومرة تحلم أن تسبح مثل السمكة، ومرة أن تقفز مثل الكنغر، وفي إحدى المرات كانت تراقب البطات من حولها وهن يسبحن على سطح الماء، فأحبت أن تكون بطة تجيد السباحة.. ولكن هذا القناع لم يساعدها على أن تصير بطة حقيقية أو أن تسبح مثل باقي البطات، ثم رأت أرنباً يقفز بسرعة ويأكل الجزر بأسنانه الكبيرة، أحبت تلك القفزات الطويلة، فقررت أن تصير أرنباً، ولكن تلك الآذان الطويلة لم تسهل عليها عملية القفز والجري بل على العكس زادت الطين بلة، وأثناء عودتها للمنزل وهي تتذمر رأت قطيعاً من الخرفان، فأحبت شكلها المستدير بصوفها الكثيف، فقررت أن تصير خروفاً جميلاً، ولكن بعض الصوف على جسدها لم ولن يجعلها خروفاً حقيقياً وأخيراً.. كان القرار الأخير هو الأغرب. أثناء تجوالها في أحد البساتين رأت بعض الفاكهة، فوصل طمعها برغبتها حتى أن تصير فاكهة لذيدة برائحة طيبة فوضعت بعض قشور الفاكهة على رأسها، واستغرقت من تعبها في نوم عميق، وفجأة شعرت كأن أحداً ما يحركها من مكانها، نظرت نحو الأعلى، فرأت خرفاناً من حولها تفتح فاها محاولة أكلها، ظانة إياها نوعاً لذيذاً من الفاكهة، وما إن أدركت القطة هذا حتى خلعت القناع وفرت هاربة مذعورة وهي تقول أنا محظوظة لأنني قطة أستطيع الهرب بسرعة ولم أكن فاكهة أو أي شيء آخر، ثم عادت إلى بيتها وهي مسرورة

  20. #70
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    بلييييييز احد يصحح لي هالبرقرلف اذ فيه اخطاء بالقرامر

    The role of maids and servants in society
    Introduction
    One of the social phenomena that have become prevalent in the present time.the issue of attracting maids and servants to the local community .it is a controversial issue and opinions differ on this issue .there are thosewho believe they are prerequisite and necessary in some cases .on the other hand ,they are those who disapprove this phenomena because of its negative impact on the upbringing o the future generation

    Body;
    Opponents of maids and servants found that relying on them would lead to the evanescence of the concept of self-reliance and prevalence the behavior of the dependency .they also mention he negative impact on reaving o children because of the the different culture the affects appear in linguistic growth and behavior of the child in the future in this case ,it cannot ignore the positive effects of maids and servants .there are who believe that relying on them in some cases be okay if that is necessary





    Comparison between formal and non-formal education
    Education is the process of learning to improve knowledge and develop skills .education often takes place under the guidance of educators but learners may also educate themselves .there are two forms of education ,formal and non-formal education while formal and non-formal education are different and totally opposite.

    Body;
    formal education guided to formal curriculum but informal but informal education there is no program or prescriptive methods of study . formal education happens in a school or in a classroom provided by teachers ;in contrast ,informal education learning happens anywhere and anytime based on own experience .there are no exams in informal education ,unlike the formal education .formal education results in obtaining a certificate and recognized ,while informal education does not result in obtaining a certificate.
    [SIGPIC][/SIGPIC]

  21. #71
    مميز الصورة الرمزية لـ شكسبير زماني
    تاريخ التّسجيل
    Oct 2007
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    Dammam
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    رد: عـــنــــدك قـــطــعــة ... مـــقـــال .. تبغى ترجمتها؟ come on

    السلام عليكم
    الله يعطيكم العافية احتاج ترجمة مختصرة جدا
    Media Will Never Influence Learning by Richard E. Clark
    The purpose of this discussion is to explain and sharpen different points of view about the impact of media and attributes of media
    on learning, motivation and efficiency gains from instruction. This paper is an attempt to summarize my arguments about the
    research and theory in this area and to respond to Robert Kozma's criticism of my earlier discussion of these issues. I will first
    briefly summarize my arguments about media effects; next I will attempt to characterize the many reactions to the controversial
    claim that media do not influence learning or motivation. Finally, I will respond to the specific criticisms advanced by Robert
    Kozma this issue.
    INTRODUCTION
    A Brief History of Media Research
    The claim of "no learning benefits" from media has been made and substantiated many times in the past. Many researchers have argued that
    media have differential economic benefits but no learning benefits. For example, in the first Handbook of Research on Teaching, Lumsdaine
    (1963) concluded that the benefits of media were primarily economic and that their use was "to develop the technology of instructional method"
    (p. 669). Mielke (1968) was eloquent on the topic in an article he wrote for the now-defunct Educational Broadcasting Review (Mielke, 1968) titled
    "Questioning the Questions of ETV Research." He predicted that adequately designed research on the learning benefits of various media would
    yield no significant differences between treatments. Another example of the argument came from this century's most prolific media research
    reviewer, Wilbur Schramm (1977), who claimed that learning is influenced more by the content and instructional strategy in a medium than by the
    type of medium. Levie & Dickie (1973) made the same point as Schramm in their chapter on media and technology research in the Second
    Handbook of Research on Teaching. Finally, this was the conclusion I reached with Gavriel Salomon in our review in the third, and most recent,
    Handbook of Research on Teaching (Clark & Salomon, 1986). It is therefore a bit of a mystery why my restatement of the claim of "no differences
    expected" a decade ago (Clark, 1983) received so much attention. A colleague has suggested that previous discussions of this argument have
    put the claim in very tentative terms (as befits our training as researchers) and left the door open to media effects on learning. I made the explicit
    and clear claim that there were no learning benefits possible and urged that we not continue to waste effort on the question until a "new theory"
    was developed. I intended to stimulate discussion and I was not disappointed. Before I describe the reactions however, the discussion turns to a
    brief review of the argument.
    The Important Aspects of the Learning From Media Argument
    My early articles (Clark, 1983, 1985a) claimed, in part, that media are "mere vehicles that deliver instruction but do not influence student
    achievement any more than the truck that delivers our groceries causes changes in our nutrition" (1983, p. 445). The articles presented evidence
    in support of the hypothesis that instructional methods had been confounded with media and that it is methods which influence learning. Further, I
    claimed, that any necessary teaching method could be designed into a variety of media presentations. I also questioned the unique contributions
    of media attributes. Gavriel Salomon and others (Salomon, 1979) had argued that it was not the medium which influenced learning but instead
    certain attributes of media that can be modeled by learners and can shape the development of unique "cognitive processes." Examples of media
    attributes are the capacity of television and movies to "zoom" into detail or to "unwrap" three-dimensional objects into two dimensions. The
    problem with the media attribute argument is that there is strong evidence that many very different media attributes accomplish the same learning
    goal (for example, there are a variety of equally effective ways to highlight details other than zooming). In every attempt to replicate the published
    media attribute studies (see studies cited by Clark, 1985c; Clark & Sugrue, 1988), a number of very different media attributes served the same or
    similar cognitive functions. This point is critical to my argument. If there is no single media attribute that serves a unique cognitive effect for some
    learning task, then the attributes must be proxies for some other variables that are instrumental in learning gains.
    A Replaceability Challenge
    It may be useful to apply the following "armchair experimental criteria" to any situation where it appears that media or attributes of media have
    been instrumental in fostering learning gains: We need to ask whether there are other media or another set of media attributes that would yield
    similar learning gains. The question is critical because if different media or attributes yield similar learning gains and facilitate achievement of
    necessary performance criteria, then in a design science or an instructional technology, we must always choose the less expensive way to
    achieve a learning goal. We must also form our theories around the underlying structural features of the shared properties of the interchangeable
    variables and not base theory on the irrelevant surface features. I challenge Robert Kozma and other colleagues in this area to find evidence, in a
    well designed study, of any instance of a medium or media attributes that are not replaceable by a different set of media and attributes to achieve
    similar learning results for any given student and learning task. This replaceability test is the key to my argument since if a treatment can be
    replaced by another treatment with similar results, the cause of the results is in some shared (and uncontrolled) properties of both treatments. Of
    course it is important for instructional designers to know that there are a variety of treatments that will produce a desired learning goal. However,
    the utility of this knowledge is largely economic. The designer can and must choose the less expensive and most cognitively efficient way to
    represent and deliver instruction. It cannot be argued that any given medium or attribute must be present in order for learning to occur, only that
    certain media and attributes are more efficient for certain learners, learning goals and tasks. This allows the discussion, and our mental set as
    theorists, to shift from media attributes as causal in learning to media attributes as causal in the cost-effectiveness of learning. While this may
    seem a small shift in the representation of the problem, it would have major consequences for instructional research, theory and for design.
    Cognitive instructional theory can shift to a concern with instructional methods that support the structural elements of cognitive processing during
    learning and transfer.
    What is an Instructional Method, and How is it Different From a Medium?
    An instructional method is any way to shape information that activates, supplants or compensates for the cognitive processes necessary for
    achievement or motivation (Salomon, 1979). For example, students often need an example to connect new information in a learning task with
    information in their prior experience. If students cannot (or will not) give themselves an adequate example, an instructional presentation must
    4/6/2018 Media Will Never Influence Learning
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    provide it for them. It is likely that many different types of examples, with many different attributes presented by many different media would serve
    similar cognitive functions for any given student. Instructional technology attempts to specify the need for and type of instructional methods
    required for the essential psychological support of students as they learn. Delivery technology formats and packages essential instructional
    methods based on available resources and the cost-effectiveness qualities of media attributes for specific learners and learning contexts.
    A Confusion of Technologies
    In a presentation for the Association for Educational Communications and Technology at their 1987 Atlanta convention I attributed our media
    research and practice problem to a "confusion of technologies" (Clark, 1987). Instructional or training design technologies draw on psychological
    and social-psychological research to select necessary information and objectives (as a result of task analysis) and design instructional methods
    and environments that enhance achievement. A very different technology -- delivery technology -- is necessary to provide efficient and timely
    access to those methods and environments. Both technologies make vital but very different contributions to education. Delivery technologies
    influence the cost and access of instruction and information. Design technologies make it possible to influence student achievement. In my view,
    there is a long history of a basic confusion between these two technologies that strangles our study of the contributions of media.
    Motivation With Media
    I also claimed that media not only fail to influence learning, they are also not directly responsible for motivating learning. Here I agreed
    wholeheartedly with the views of Salomon (1984) and others who draw on the new cognitive theories which attribute motivation to learners'
    beliefs and expectations about their reactions to external events -- not to external events alone. There is compelling research evidence that
    students' beliefs about their chances to learn from any given media are different for different students and for the same students at different times.
    WHAT ARE THE COUNTER-ARGUMENTS?
    While there have been a great variety of counter-arguments, I categorize them into four types of rebuttals to the basic argument; 1) reasoning
    based on the usual uses of a medium: 2) the meta-analysis evidence; 3) problems with empiricism and logical positivism; and 4) a lingering hope
    for media attributes.
    Usual Uses
    The majority of informal letters which I received took Marshall McLuhan's view that media and method were identical and inseparable. I think of it
    as the usual uses argument. It seems to develop because media specialists generate beliefs about the "best" contents and methods for each
    medium. So, for example, television is usually thought to convey "realistic," visual, real time, documentary information. Computers most often give
    semantically dense simulations of complex phenomena as well as drill and practice. Textbooks have tended to focus on the development of
    encyclopedic knowledge with illustrated examples and heavy verbal content. Many writers seemed to suggest that these methods were somehow
    intrinsic to a given medium. My argument is that the usual uses of a medium do not limit the methods or content it is capable of presenting.
    Computers can present realistic visual, real-time documentary information, and television can present semantically dense simulations. The
    method is the simulation or the real-time depiction. A good example of this point was uncovered in one of the earliest and largest (and best
    designed) studies of computers by Suppes (in Clark, 1983) during the 1960s. In a study of computers versus teachers using drill and practice in
    mathematics, Suppes found that one of his control school districts had messed up the data collection by delivering more drill and practice in
    mathematics than was permitted by the study-using teachers and not computers. The result was that in that school district, mathematics
    achievement increased at exactly the same rate as it did in districts where computers were giving drill and practice. Suppes concluded then that it
    was not the medium but the drill and practice method that influenced achievement but he noted that the cost of the intervention might have been
    less with computers.
    Meta-analytic Evidence
    Meta-analytic reviews of media research have produced evidence for the positive learning benefits of research with various media, particularly
    computers (see reviews in Clark, 1983, 1985a,b). These analyses report an approximate 20 percent increase in final exam scores following
    computer-based instruction (CBI) when it is compared to traditional forms of instruction (generally live instruction). After a number of discussions,
    Kulik (1985), one of the primary authors of many of the meta-analytic surveys, agreed that it is not the computer but the teaching method built into
    CBI that accounts for the learning gains in those studies. More important, Kulik agreed that the methods used in CBI can be and are used by
    teachers in live instruction (Kulik, 1985). In fact, I reanalyzed a 30 percent sample of the studies he used and found that when the same
    instructional design group produces CBT and presents the live instruction with which it is compared in many studies, there is no achievement
    difference between the CBT and live conditions (Clark, 1985c). To characterize the fact that these powerful methods can be and are used in a
    variety of media, Kulik employed the catchy phrase . . . diffusion of the innovative treatment to the control condition" (Kulik, 1985, p. 386). This
    statement more or less acknowledges that most of the studies which are grist for the meta-analytic mill, are confounded because the teaching
    method is not controlled (if it were controlled it could not "diffuse" anywhere).
    Empiricism Envy
    Cunningham (1986) did not dispute my argument that media made no difference to learning or motivation but argued against my empiricallybased
    claims that instructional methods were responsible for achievement gains. Cunningham is well trained as a quantitative researcher but is
    increasingly attracted to qualitative research and not to empirical method or logical positivism. I think his argument was with the unreconstructed
    empiricism of my argument rather than with the theoretical claims. I agreed with him that my claim that it is instructional methods which account
    for learning gains is a hypothesis, not a conclusion (Clark, 1986).
    Necessary Media Attributes
    A number of researchers have argued with my claim about the unique contribution of what Gavriel Salomon calls "media attributes." Remember
    that the capacity of movies to zoom into detail or to unwrap three dimensional objects has led some to claim that new media have attributes that
    4/6/2018 Media Will Never Influence Learning
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    make unique cognitive representations available (Salomon, 1979). A few go so far as to claim that new "intelligence" might be possible as a result
    of exposure to these attributes (for example, Salomon, Perkins & Globerson, 1991). I presented evidence (Clark, 1985a,b) that many very
    different media attributes could accomplish the same learning goal (i.e. there were a variety of equally effective ways to highlight details other
    than zooming) and so no one media attribute has a unique cognitive effect. Petkovitch and Tennyson (1984) took me to task with an argument
    which I still do not completely understand but which seems to be related to the attributes argument. They seemed to agree that media comparison
    studies are useless but claimed that certain media attributes make necessary contributions to learning. The evidence they offered was a study
    where a computer simulation was used to teach students some skills required to fly a plane. I responded that people learned to fly planes before
    computers were developed and therefore the media attributes required to learn were obviously neither exclusive to computers nor necessary for
    learning to fly. A similar and more extensive argument has been made by Kozma (1991). The next section of this paper addresses Kozma's
    (1994) points in this debate and in his earlier work.
    Kozma's Reframed Argument about the Influence of Media on Learning
    First, it is important to notice that Kozma (1994) agrees with me that there is no compelling evidence in the past 70 years of published and
    unpublished research that media cause learning increases under any conditions. Like all other researchers who have made a careful study of the
    arguments and research studies (e.g., Winn, 1990), he reaches a conclusion that is compatible with my claims (Clark, 1983). Kozma then asks
    that we reframe the argument about the future possibilities of media as causal agents in learning. In his discussion (this issue) Kozma interprets
    my claim that media attributes are not "necessary" variables in learning studies by quoting scholars from the philosophy of science who suggest
    that "sufficient conditions" are important to a design science. Kozma states that ". . . scientists concerned with necessary conditions are those
    interested in eliminating something undesirable, such as disease . . . On the other hand, scientists interested in the production of something
    desirable, such as learning, are concerned with establishing conditions that are sufficient to bring it about. . . Necessary conditions are those in
    whose absence an event cannot occur, while sufficient conditions are those in whose presence an event must occur" (1994, p. 14). Kozma offers
    those studies where media attribute treatments are sufficient for learning as evidence for the value of attribute research.
    This argument contains some of the most important elements of our disagreement. My reply is relatively simple. When a study demonstrates that
    media attributes are sufficient to cause learning, the study has failed to control for instructional method and is therefore confounded. It is true that
    in some cases instructional treatments containing media attributes are sufficient to cause learning. When this happens, the necessary condition to
    cause learning is embedded in the sufficient treatment. We know that the active ingredient in successful media treatments is not the media
    attributes because in all known attempts to replicate these studies, different attributes produce similar learning results----provided that the
    required instructional method is present in the compared versions of the media attributes. That necessary condition or "active ingredient" of the
    treatment which was sufficient to cause learning from instruction is best characterized as an instructional method which activates, compensates
    or supplants the cognitive processes necessary for learning to occur (Salomon, 1979). In other words, any treatment that is sufficient for learning
    must embody whatever is necessary to cause learning.
    Structural and Surface Features of Research Constructs
    The concepts of necessary and sufficient are similar to the concepts of structural and surface features in research on the role of analogies in
    transfer during problem solving (for example, Gick & Holyoak, 1987). Surface features of analogies are those whose characteristics are of only
    limited and domain-specific importance. For example, in science and mathematics instruction, irrelevant features of analogies often cause
    misconceptions in learning. When told that an atom is like the solar system, students often believe that electrons must attract each other and be
    attracted to the nucleus of the atom because planets are attracted to each other and to the sun by gravity. Gravity is a surface feature that is
    important to understanding the solar system but not the atom. The structural (necessary) features that underlie both systems are central bodies
    (nucleus, sun) that are encircled by rotating spheres (electrons, planets). The point that I had hoped to make in my earlier reviews is that media
    attributes are surface features of learning systems. Those surface features may affect the economics but not the learning effectiveness of
    instruction. Instructional methods are structural (necessary) features of media attribute studies. On the other hand, instructional methods may be
    surface features of treatments concerned with the economics of learning.
    I accept the point that whenever learning occurs, some medium or mix of media must be present to deliver instruction. However, if learning occurs
    as a result of exposure to any media, the learning is caused by the instructional method embedded in the media presentation. Method is the
    inclusion of one of a number of possible representations of a cognitive process or strategy that is necessary for learning but which students
    cannot or will not provide for themselves. Kozma (1994) accuses me of creating an "unnecessary and undesirable schism" (p. 16) between
    method and medium. My claim is that Kozma has confounded the two constructs. He is asking you to consider media as an integral aspect of
    method. I am suggesting that if we take his advice, we will continue to misinterpret the research on instructional media and learning and continue
    to fail in our efforts to construct powerful learning environments for all students.
    All methods required for learning can be delivered by a variety of media and media attributes. It is method which is the "active ingredient" or
    active independent variable that may or may not be delivered by the medium to influence learning. The derivation and delivery of a method to
    support learning is always necessary. A great variety of media "translations" of any given method are sufficient to cause learning. Therefore, aside
    from the identification of necessary methods for learners and tasks, it is important to derive media that are capable of delivering the method at the
    least expensive rate and in the speediest fashion. Media influence cost or speed (efficiency) of learning but methods are causal in learning.
    Let me try to illustrate my point one more time with a medical analogy. People often have preferences for one or another way to use a chemical
    medicine prescribed by a physician to improve health. Some people will argue for tablets and others for liquid or injected forms of treatment. Is it
    sufficient that one take a tablet medicine? Only if the tablet contains the active ingredient required to help us. Different forms of a medicine might
    help us provided that they all contain the same method or active ingredient. The different forms of medicine are similar to different media. The
    media include a variety of tablets, liquid suspensions, suppositories or injections. All of these different media are often capable of delivering a
    necessary active chemical ingredient with different levels of efficiency, but with more or less equal effects on our physical symptoms. The active
    chemical ingredient of these medical media is analogous to the necessary method in instruction. We could not construct an adequate medical
    design science using different (sufficient) forms of delivery media alone and it would be irrelevant to measure whether these delivery forms reduce
    our symptoms (unless we were concerned with the effects of belief on health). Scientific arguments about the necessary or sufficient nature of
    oral ingestion of tablets versus an injection of the liquid form of a medicine would be largely irrelevant. Yet the discussion of delivery forms for
    medicine is very important. Each of these delivery forms has different efficiency characteristics. Some forms of delivery get the active ingredient
    to the patient much faster (or slower) in quantities which are more "pure" or more "diluted" at greater or less cost to the patient. For this reason I
    disagree with Kozma's suggestion that we not separate medium and method in instructional research. Instead I claim that our failure to Separate
    medium from method has caused enormous confounding and waste in a very important and expensive research area.
    4/6/2018 Media Will Never Influence Learning
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    We continue to invest heavily in expensive media in the hope that they will produce gains in learning. When learning gains are found, we attribute
    them to the delivery medium, not to the active ingredient in instruction. When learning gains are absent, we assume we have chosen the wrong
    mix of media. In any event, many educators and business trainers are convinced that they must invest scarce resources in newer media in order
    to insure learning, performance or motivational gains.
    Evidence for Kozma's View
    Finally, Kozma's evidence for his view is to describe the latest round of studies that utilize the currently fashionable media -- ThinkerTools to teach
    force and motion problem solutions and the Jasper Woodbury Series intended to help students solve mathematics problems (see Kozma, this
    issue). These studies were not designed so that their results would provide evidence about the claims being made in this dispute. The research
    conducted to validate these very creative instructional programs did not control for the sources of confounding that lie at the root of the argument.
    The computer- based ThinkerTools program was compared with a standard curriculum for teaching force and motion. It is not clear whether the
    standard curriculum used similar instructional methods but it is very doubtful. The videodisk-based Jasper program group was compared with a
    control group that did not receive instruction in "decomposition and solution strategies." One must question whether this missing instruction could
    have been delivered with a very different medium or set of media attributes. One must assume that these comparisons confound method and
    content in the same way that many previous studies in this area fail to control for important alternative hypotheses. One way to begin to answer
    questions about the structural necessity of media attributes is to ask whether other learners have achieved similar learning results with different
    instructional treatments. Have learners acquired problem-solving techniques similar to those presented in ThinkerTools or Jasper in the past? If
    so, the media attributes available from expensive computers and video disks are not structurally important in learning problem- solving skills. Yet
    in making this point, I do not want to appear to be critical of the developers of these two excellent programs. The substantive point of both design
    activities was to explore the utility of different combinations of instructional method.
    CONCLUSlON
    Kozma agrees with me that evidence does not yet support the claim that media or media attributes influence learning. This has been the
    conclusion of all media researchers who have entered into a dialogue about this issue (e.g., Winn, 1990). However, Kozma hopes that future
    media research will be more positive. He accepts the claim that in thousands of media research studies conducted over a period of 70 years, we
    have failed to find compelling causal evidence that media or media attributes influence learning in any essential and structural way. However,
    Kozma remains optimistic that with careful consideration of cognitive processes, we will find a critical connection between media attributes and
    learning. He suggests that my insistence that educational researchers separate these two classes of variables will retard a very promising area of
    research.
    In brief, my claim is that media research is a triumph of enthusiasm over substantive examination of structural processes in learning and
    instruction. Media and their attributes haven important influences on the cost or speed of learning but only the use of adequate instructional
    methods will influence learning. I define methods as the provision of cognitive processes or strategies that are necessary for learning but which
    students can not or will not provide for themselves. I claim that absolutely any necessary teaching method can be delivered to students by many
    media or a variety of mixtures of media attributes - with similar learning results.
    The media research question is only one of a number of similarly confounded questions in educational research. It is difficult for alternative
    questions to gain acceptance, even though adequate research exists to refute invalid but intuitively appealing beliefs. The development of an
    instructional design science is necessary but very complex. Part of the difficulty, in my view, is that we tend to encourage students (and faculty) to
    begin with educational and instructional solutions and search for problems that can be solved by those solutions. Thus we begin with an
    enthusiasm for some medium, or individualized instruction, or deschooling - and search for a sufficient and visible context in which to establish
    evidence for our solution. Negative evidence is suspect and we are predisposed to believe that it is flawed. In the case of media research, 70
    years of largely negative evidence has been and continues to be ignored by many researchers. Positive evidence is accepted easily because it
    confirms our expectations and helps to attract research support. We need a greater appreciation for negative evidence and to begin with a focus
    on the problem (for example, the need to increase achievement, or access to instruction, or to address the labor intensiveness of instruction) and
    then search relevant research literatures for robust, research-based theories that can support the development of a variety of solutions to those
    problems. If we begin by implicitly and explicitly attempting to validate a belief about the solutions to largely unexamined problems, we are less
    open to evidence that our intuitions might be very far off the mark.
    If the arguments advanced here have failed to convince you, I ask you to consider one or two questions as you reason about media research.
    Whenever you have found a medium or set of media attributes which you believe will cause learning for some learners on a given task, ask
    yourself if another (similar) set of attributes would lead to the same learning result. If you suspect that there may be an alternative set or mix of
    media that would give similar results, ask yourself what is causing these similar results. It is likely that when different media treatments of the
    same informational content to the same students yield similar learning results, the cause of the results can be found in a method which the two
    treatments share in common. Design science (and a world with limited resources and many competing problems) requires that you choose the
    least expensive solution and give up your enthusiasm for the belief that media attributes cause learning.
    Richard E. Clark is Professor and Chair, Division of Educational Psychology and Technology and Director of Professional Studies in the School of
    Education at the University of Southern California at Los Angeles. This article is based in part on a debate between the author and Robert Kozma
    at the 1993 international convention of The European Association for Research on Learning and instruction at Aix en Provence, France,
    September 4,1993, and on a February 1991 article by the author in Educational Technology titled "When Researchers Swim Upstream:
    Reflections on an Unpopular Argument About Learning From Media" (pp.34-40).

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