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الموضوع: ماذا يقصد بهذه الجملة ؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟

  1. #1
    شخصية بارزة
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    Sep 2005
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    In my special world
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    ماذا يقصد بهذه الجملة ؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟

    السلام عليكم اخوتي

    ممكن شوي معي

    ماذا يقصد بالضبط بهذه الجملة

    في الدرس الثاني B

    i use ozone freindly air fresheners and pesticides


    اكيد اعرف معاني الكلمات بس المعنى بشكل عام ؟؟




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  2. #2
    شخصية بارزة الصورة الرمزية Marshmallows
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    riyadh
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    مشاركة: ماذا يقصد بهذه الجملة ؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟

    اي استخدام معطرات ومنعشات الجو ومبيدات الحشرات
    [SIGPIC][/SIGPIC]ثانكس try to reach لاهدائك لي هالتوقيع الرائع

  3. #3
    شخصية بارزة
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    In my special world
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    مشاركة: ماذا يقصد بهذه الجملة ؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟

    طيب وش دخل ozone في الموضوع

    انا فهمتها مثل ما كتبتي ؟؟

    و FREINDLY ???????????




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  4. #4
    انجليزي مشارك
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    مشاركة: ماذا يقصد بهذه الجملة ؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟

    يقصد فيها المعطرات والمبيدات الحشرية الغير ضارة بطبقة الاوزون ....وبترجمة حرفية ( صديقة للاوزون ) غير ضارة به

  5. #5
    انجليزي رائع
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    Mar 2005
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    Jeddah
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    168

    مشاركة: ماذا يقصد بهذه الجملة ؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟

    يقصد أنه يستخدم معطرات الجو والمبيدات الحشرية الغير ضاره بالجو أو اللطيفه على طبقة الأوزون وغير ضاره بها

  6. #6
    شخصية بارزة
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    In my special world
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    مشاركة: ماذا يقصد بهذه الجملة ؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟

    ربي لا يحرمكم الجنة اختي دينا واي انجليش

    وجميل استخدام friendly هنا :) على انها غير ضارة .. راقت لي الجملة الان ههههههههههه

    كل الشكر للجميع

    سوسو
    التعديل الأخير تم بواسطة ميس ; 21-11-2005 الساعة 12:44 AM




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  7. #7
    شخصية بارزة الصورة الرمزية زهرة وفى
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    مشاركة: ماذا يقصد بهذه الجملة ؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟

    حلوه منك ياسمين استفدنا منك

    ومن البنوتات

    تدري توي انتبه لها

  8. #8
    شخصية بارزة
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    In my special world
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    مشاركة: ماذا يقصد بهذه الجملة ؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟

    هلا بغلاي زهرة

    ايه والله كل اللي هنا الجنس اللطيف كذا همتكم يا بنات :))))

    سلمتي يا خيتي على توقيعك ودخولك المشاركة اسعدني


    ومساء تبلله قطرات المطرر التي اسمعها واحسها

    سوسو




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  9. #9
    شخصية بارزة
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    مشاركة: ماذا يقصد بهذه الجملة ؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟

    أوزون معناها الأكسجين المنعش في القاموس

    يعني مثل ماقالوا الاخوات معناها ملطفات الجوالمنعشة ومبيدات الحشرات


  10. #10
    شخصية بارزة
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    Aug 2005
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    في قلب كل مين يسأل عني
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    مشاركة: ماذا يقصد بهذه الجملة ؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟

    thanks alot for all of you

  11. #11
    انجليزي جديد
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    Nov 2004
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    Taif
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    مشاركة: ماذا يقصد بهذه الجملة ؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟

    أنا خفت يجيني دعوة زي هذي قمت ما رديت
    هههههههههههههههههه
    أدري خطأ مطبعي لا أحد يتفلسف
    لوووولز

    اقتباس المشاركة الأصلية كتبت بواسطة yesmeena
    ربي لا يرحمكم الجنة اختي دينا واي انجليش

    وجميل استخدام friendly هنا :) على انها غير ضارة .. راقت لي الجملة الان ههههههههههه

    كل الشكر للجميع

    سوسو

  12. #12
    شخصية بارزة
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    Sep 2005
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    In my special world
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    7,141

    مشاركة: ماذا يقصد بهذه الجملة ؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟

    اقتباس المشاركة الأصلية كتبت بواسطة Lancaster
    أوزون معناها الأكسجين المنعش في القاموس

    يعني مثل ماقالوا الاخوات معناها ملطفات الجوالمنعشة ومبيدات الحشرات

    اشكرك للمعلومة ونخدم مثل ما خدمتنا يا قمر

    تقديري




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  13. #13
    شخصية بارزة
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    In my special world
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    مشاركة: ماذا يقصد بهذه الجملة ؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟

    اقتباس المشاركة الأصلية كتبت بواسطة dove
    thanks alot for all of you
    Welcome dear

    see u

    keep in tuoch




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  14. #14
    شخصية بارزة
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    Sep 2005
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    In my special world
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    7,141

    مشاركة: ماذا يقصد بهذه الجملة ؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟

    اقتباس المشاركة الأصلية كتبت بواسطة ResortBird
    أنا خفت يجيني دعوة زي هذي قمت ما رديت
    هههههههههههههههههه
    أدري خطأ مطبعي لا أحد يتفلسف
    لوووولز
    يا قمر انت يعني لا تدققي كثير على الرغم انها فشلة الغلط وغير مقصودة

    وتم التعديل على المشاركة

    عسى بس الاخوات ما اخذوا في بالهم الموضوع :(

    الله يوفقك يا بنت :D




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  15. #15
    انجليزي جديد
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    مشاركة: ماذا يقصد بهذه الجملة ؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟

    Environment

    Environment, all of the external factors affecting an organism. These factors may be other living organisms (biotic factors) or nonliving variables (abiotic factors), such as temperature, rainfall, day length, wind, and ocean currents. The interactions of organisms with biotic and abiotic factors form an ecosystem. Even minute changes in any one factor in an ecosystem can influence whether or not a particular plant or animal species will be successful in its environment.



    Organisms and their environment constantly interact, and both are changed by this interaction. Like all other living creatures, humans have clearly changed their environment, but they have done so generally on a grander scale than have all other species. Some of these human-induced changes—such as the destruction of the world’s tropical rain forests to create farms or grazing land for cattle—have led to altered climate patterns (see Global Warming). In turn, altered climate patterns have changed the way animals and plants are distributed in different ecosystems.

    Scientists study the long-term consequences of human actions on the environment, while environmentalists—professionals in various fields, as well as concerned citizens—advocate ways to lessen the impact of human activity on the natural world.
    How has the Earth remained hospitable for life for billions of years? This question remains one of the most important in 21st-century science because the answer could help scientists understand the long-term consequences of human activities on the environment. In this Point/Counterpoint Sidebar, scientist James Lovelock presents his case for Gaia theory. The theory maintains that Earth is an interrelated system in which living things, together with Earth’s surface and atmosphere, evolve as a single entity. Further, Lovelock argues, this system functions to make the planet habitable for life. Earth scientist James W. Kirchner agrees that life on Earth is part of an interrelated system, but he argues that the factors regulating the environment are more complex than can be
    The science of ecology attempts to explain why plants and animals live where they do and why their populations are the sizes they are. Understanding the distribution and population size of organisms helps scientists evaluate the health of the environment.

    In 1840 German chemist Justus von Liebig first proposed that populations cannot grow indefinitely, a basic principle now known as the Law of the Minimum. Biotic and abiotic factors, singly or in combination, ultimately limit the size that any population may attain. This size limit, known as a population’s carrying capacity, occurs when needed resources, such as food, breeding sites, and water, are in short supply. For example, the amount of nutrients in soil influences the amount of wheat that grows on a farm. If just one soil nutrient, such as nitrogen, is missing or below optimal levels, fewer healthy wheat plants will grow.

    Population size and distribution may also be affected, either directly or indirectly, by the way species in an ecosystem interact with one another. In an experiment performed in the late 1960s in the rocky tidal zone along the Pacific Coast of the United States, American ecologist Robert Paine studied an area that contained 15 species of invertebrates, including starfish, mussels, limpets, barnacles, and chitons. Paine found that in this ecosystem one species of starfish preyed heavily on a species of mussel, preventing that mussel population from multiplying and monopolizing space in the tidal zone. When Paine removed the starfish from the area, he found that the mussel population quickly increased in size, crowding out most other organisms from rock surfaces. The number of invertebrate species in the ecosystem soon dropped to eight species. Paine concluded that the loss of just one species, the starfish, indirectly led to the loss of an additional six species and a transformation of the ecosystem.

    Typically, the species that coexist in ecosystems have evolved together for many generations. These populations have established balanced interactions with each other that enable all populations in the area to remain relatively stable. Occasionally, however, natural or human-made disruptions occur that have unforeseen consequences to populations in an ecosystem. For example, 17th-century sailors routinely introduced goats to isolated oceanic islands, intending for the goats to roam freely and serve as a source of meat when the sailors returned to the islands during future voyages. As nonnative species free from all natural predators, the goats thrived and, in the process, overgrazed many of the islands. With a change in plant composition, many of the native animal species on the islands were driven to extinction. A simple action, the introduction of goats to an island, yielded many changes in the island ecosystem, demonstrating that all members of a community are closely interconnected.

    To better understand the impact of natural and human disruptions on the Earth, in 1991 the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) began to use artificial satellites to study global change. NASA’s undertaking, called Earth Science Enterprise, is part of an international effort linking numerous satellites into a single Earth Observing System (EOS). EOS collects information about the interactions occurring in the atmosphere, on land, and in the oceans, and these data help scientists and lawmakers make sound environmental policy decisions.


    Pollution,
    “There is no such thing as a free lunch.” Most people would not think to apply this idiom to the health of the planet, but the saying is one of biologist Barry Commoner’s three rules of ecology, along with “Everything is connected with everything else” and “Everything goes somewhere.” In this 1970 National Geographic article, staff writer Gordon Young talks with Commoner and other scientists who discuss the devastating effects of pollution.


    The problems facing the environment are vast and diverse. Global warming, the depletion of the ozone layer in the atmosphere, and destruction of the world’s rain forests are just some of the problems that many scientists believe will reach critical proportions in the coming decades. All of these problems will be directly affected by the size of the human population.

    A Population Growth

    Human population growth is at the root of virtually all of the world’s environmental problems. Although the growth rate of the world’s population has slowed slightly since the 1990s, the world’s population increases by about 77 million human beings each year. As the number of people increases, crowding generates pollution, destroys more habitats, and uses up additional natural resources.

    The Population Division of the United Nations (UN) predicts that the world’s population will increase from 6.23 billion people in 2000 to 9.3 billion people in 2050. The UN estimates that the population will stabilize at more than 11 billion in 2200. Other experts predict that numbers will continue to rise into the foreseeable future, to as many as 19 billion people by the year 2200.

    Although rates of population increase are now much slower in the developed world than in the developing world, it would be a mistake to assume that population growth is primarily a problem of developing countries. In fact, because larger amounts of resources per person are used in developed nations, each individual from the developed world has a much greater environmental impact than does a person from a developing country. Conservation strategies that would not significantly alter lifestyles but that would greatly lessen environmental impact are essential in the developed world.

    In the developing world, meanwhile, the most important factors necessary to lower population growth rates are democracy and social justice. Studies show that population growth rates have fallen in developing areas where several social conditions exist. In these areas, literacy rates have increased and women receive economic status equal to that of men, enabling women to hold jobs and own property. In addition, birth control information in these areas is more widely available, and women are free to make their own reproductive decisions.

    B Global Warming

    Like the glass panes in a greenhouse, certain gases in the Earth’s atmosphere permit the Sun’s radiation to heat Earth. At the same time, these gases retard the escape into space of the infrared energy radiated back out by Earth. This process is referred to as the greenhouse effect. These gases, primarily carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and water vapor, insulate Earth’s surface, helping to maintain warm temperatures. Without these gases, Earth would be a frozen planet with an average temperature of about -18°C (about 0°F) instead of a comfortable 15°C (59°F). If the concentration of these gases rises, they trap more heat within the atmosphere, causing worldwide temperatures to rise.

    Within the last century, the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has increased dramatically, largely because people burn vast amounts of fossil fuels—coal and petroleum and its derivatives. Average global temperature also has increased—by about 0.6 Celsius degree (1 Fahrenheit degree) within the past century. Atmospheric scientists have found that at least half of that temperature increase can be attributed to human activity. They predict that unless dramatic action is taken, global temperature will continue to rise by 1.4 to 5.8 Celsius degrees (2.5 to 10.4 Fahrenheit degrees) over the next century. Although such an increase may not seem like a great difference, during the last ice age the global temperature was only 2.2 Celsius degrees (4 Fahrenheit degrees) cooler than it is presently.

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